Tamil Nadu is one of the amazing states of Incredible India and is situated in the Southern Indian peninsular region. The metropolitan city of Chennai is the Tamil Nadu capital. As per the 2011 India census, the Tamil Nadu city population was 72,147,030. The state is a culturally rich and diverse region and one of the most visited tourist hubs in India. You can know about Tamil Nadu only by exploring its rich heritage.
History of Tamil Nadu: The Formation
The history of Tamil Nadu dates back to the pre-historic times and the earliest origin of the human civilization. Great dynasties like the Chola, Pallavas, and Pandyas took turn to rule the region of Tamil Nadu. The European colonization followed by the daunting British rule was the next to set their feet on the land of the Tamilians. Finally, in the year 1947, the land of the Tamils became an independent state of India.
Geography of Tamil Nadu
The geographical location of Tamil Nadu is 8 5′ and 13 35’N latitudes and 76 15′ and 80 20’E longitudes. It is spread across an area of 130,058 km2 and is the 11th largest state in India. It has Kerala to its West, Andhra Pradesh to its North and the Bay of Bengal at its East. The coastline of Tamil Nadu is approximately 1,076km. It is divided into 32 tehsils which are further divided into several towns and villages.
Biodiversity of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu has a rich biodiversity. The state has about 2000 species of native flora and fauna. The region is a protected habitat for large mammals like the Tigers, Elephants, Leopards, Wild Dogs, Gaurs, Sloth Bears, Nilgiri Langurs, Grizzled Giant Squirrels, Lion Tailed Macaques, and Sambar Deer.
The migratory birds like the Spoonbills, White Ibises, Grey Pelicans, Open Billed Storks, and Little Grebes can be easily found here. Tamil Nadu comprises of 1/3 of the aggregated flora of India which includes medicinal plants, endemic species, and red listed species.
Climatic conditions of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu experiences a tropical weather. The climate of Tamil Nadu varies from typical semi-arid to dry sub-humid. The summer season extends from the month of April to May with the average temperature being around 40 degree C, while the winter season extends from with the average temperature lying 20 to 22 degree C. The state gets its major share of rains from North East Monsoons.
The best time to visit the state of Tamil Nadu is between the months of October to February. It is an ideal season for sightseeing as the weather is pleasant and enchanting. The Coonoor hill station is the coolest place in the state.
Tamil Nadu Culture
The culture of Tamil Nadu is admired throughout India. The state is renowned for its rich traditions of art, music, literature, and dance. The variety of rituals and customs of the people make the land of Tamil Nadu a complete diversity in itself. Tamil is the regional language of Tamil Nadu.
Interesting Facts about Tamil Nadu
- The official language of Tamil Nadu is among the world’s longest surviving classical languages.
- The state is the 11th largest state in the Indian subcontinent.
- As per the 2011 human development index, Tamil Nadu is the 2nd largest state economy in India.
- The coastline of the state is the second longest coastline in India.
- The Kumbaonam festival of Tamil Nadu is observed in every 12 years and is known as the Kumbamela of South.
- The traditional form of street theatre drama or folk dance of the region is Terukkuttu or the Kattaikkuttu.
- The Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu has the largest elephant population in the country.
- The monuments in Mahaballipuram are one of the “UNESCO World Heritage Sites”.
Tamil Nadu Tourism: Best Tourist Attractions
Tamil Nadu is abundant in natural resources that include hill stations, lakes, rivers, and waterfalls. In addition, the rich history and culture of the people continue to draw large number of tourists to the region owing to which the tourism in Tamil Nadu is the largest in India. It is the most visited state and has a major contribution to the Indian Tourism.
The Queens Land, VGP Snow Kingdom, and the Black Thunder Theme Park are popular amusement, and water parks that draw a large number of tourists to it. The beach resorts and hotels are available in abundance for lodging purpose. Tourists are suggested to consult their trusted travel guides and travel websites to ensure minimum occurrence of chaos during the trip. The following are the places of interest:
- Religious Places: Some of the popular temples boasts of exquisite Dravidian architecture and has historical importance attached to its name. The Gangaionda Cholapuram, the Airavateswara temple, the Sri Meenakshi Temple, The Ramanathaswamy Temple, Brihadeeshwara Temple, the Ekambareshwara Temple, The Jambukeswarar Temple, and the Sea Shore Temple.
- Top Hill Stations in Tamil Nadu: Ooty, KodaikKanal, Coonoor Hill Stations, Yercaud, and The Nilgiri mountains are among the best tourist attractions and vacation places to visit in summer. The Nilgiris and Udhagamandalam(Ooty) are among the top trekking places and adventurous places in the state.
- Historical Places: The historical monuments at Mahabalipuram are – The Padmanabhapuram, The Palace, Krishna Mandapam, and The Danish Fort are some of the popular historical sightseeing places.
- Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks: The bio reserves of Tamil Nadu are – The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere, The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, and the Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve. The National Parks of the state are – Anamalai, Mukurithi, Mudumalai, Guindy and Gulf of Mannar. The other reserves are – Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, etc.
- Haunted Places: The state abounds in so called haunted places. The curious tourists often flock to these scary places in search of some thrill and adventure. The Madras Christian College, the Blue Cross Road, the Theosophical Society of Chennai, the Ghost town of De Monte Colony, Broken Bridge, the Besant Avenue Road, and the Two Lane East coast Road are the popular haunted places in the state.
- Romantic Places for Couples: The Chennai beach, The Marina Beach, Kodaikkanal, and Ooty are among the top honeymoon places in Tamil Nadu. The beauty and ambience of the places make them ideal romantic places for couples.
- Shopping Malls in Tamil Nadu: The stores of the Tamil Nadu Emporium and Khadi Gramodyog Bhawan are found all over the state. Mahabalipuram, Coimbatore, Madurai, and Thanjavur are popular shopping destinations. The shopping malls are mostly found in the cities.
People of Tamil Nadu
The ethnicity of Tamil Nadu consists of diverse religious and cultural value. The diversity of the land is one of its major characteristics. The major religions of people of Tamil Nadu are the Hindu, the Christian, the Muslim, and the Jain. The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes also form a vital part of the Tamil society.
Tamil Nadu Cuisines
The flavours and spices add a unique taste to the Tamil cuisines. The most popular dishes are Idly, Dosa, Pongal, Vada and Uppuma. The famous Sambhar and Coconut Chutney is the constant companion of the Tamil food. Favourite Sweet items of the region include the Athirasam, Kuli Paniyaram, Chakkarai Pongal, Milk Dessert Jigarthanda, and the Panchamirtham. The Chettinad cuisine is a delight for the non vegetarians; it is popular for its Tamil twist to most of the mainstream non-vegetarian recipes.
Major Festivals in Tamil Nadu
The major festivals of Tamil Nadu include Pongal or Tamizhar Thirunaal, Makara Sankranti, Jallikattu, Tamil New Year, Aadi Peruku, Deepavali , Ayudha Poojai, Krishna Jayanthi, Saraswathi Poojai ,Vinayaka Chathurthi, Eid ul Fitr & Eid ul Zoha, Muharram, Christmas, Good Friday, Easter and Mahamagam. The festivals are observed with great pomp and show and the rich culture of the people add colour to the celebrations.
The Tamil folk music and dance play an important role in the celebrations of the region. The folk music which includes Villuppattu and ballads are mostly utilized to convey the ancient folk history and folklore. The popular folk dances of the region include the Karakattam, Mayilattam, and Oyilattam. Temmanguppāṭṭu is one of the popular regional songs.
Popular Fairs in Tamil Nadu
The Natyanjali Dance Festival, Tourist Fair Festival, Aurbathimoovar, Thaygaraja Music Festival, and Pongal Fairs are some of the popular fairs.
Clothing Trends in Tamil Nadu
The clothing trends of the state vary over the season. The climate plays the most important role in the choice of clothing of the people. Traditional dresses of the region are Lungi with a Shirt and Angavastra for men and Saree for the women. Salwar Kameez and Jeans-top are also preferred by the women while the men prefer wearing Trousers and Shirts too.
The literacy rate of the state is 80.33%. The recent development in the fields of Science and Technology has assured a sharp growth in the ease of livelihood of the state. The youth of the state is always up-to-date with the crisp current affairs and latest fashion trends of the world.
Go ahead and run through the streets of the capital of Tamil Nadu and get blinded by the unnatural beauty. Appreciate the efforts of Tamil Nadu tourism and praise the glamour of the historical city. Your honeymoon or travel trip to this place will not go to waste because you will get to live the most precious moments of your life in the land which is known as Tamil Nadu.
List of Districts in Tamil Nadu